Pneumonia


Author: Yasumori Izumi Background: Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most frequent form of pneumonia. We herein assessed the effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in the prevention of pneumonia overall in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients at risk for infections. We hypothesized that PPSV23 vaccination is superior in preventing pneumococcal […]

The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: ...


Author: Regev Cohen Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) surveillance may improve empiric antimicrobial therapy, since colonizing strains frequently cause infections. This colonization may be ‘endogenous’ or ‘exogenous’, and the source determines infection control measures. We prospectively investigated the sources of PA, the clinical impact of PA colonization upon admission and the […]

A prospective survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and infection in ...



Author: Anna Alari Background: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM […]

Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on pneumococcal meningitis cases in ...




Author: Adrien Contejean Background: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the most frequent complication in patients with hematological malignancies and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF etiologies are numerous, and despite extensive diagnostic workflow, some patients remain with undetermined ARF etiology. Methods: This is a post-hoc study of a […]

Increased mortality in hematological malignancy patients with acute respiratory failure ...


Author: Yunzhou Fan Background: Ventilator-associated event (VAE) is a new surveillance paradigm for monitoring complications in mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs). The National Healthcare Safety Network replaced traditional ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) surveillance with VAE surveillance in 2013. The objective of this study was to assess the consistency […]

Does ventilator-associated event surveillance detect ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care ...



Author: Surat Tongyoo Background: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study […]

Hydrocortisone treatment in early sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: results ...


Author: Elena Prina Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory […]

New aspects in the management of pneumonia



Author: Donald Craven Mechanically ventilated, intubated patients are at increased risk for tracheal colonization with bacterial pathogens that may progress to heavy bacterial colonization, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Previous studies report that 10 to 30 % of patients with VAT progress to VAP, resulting in increased morbidity […]

Pre-emptive antibiotic therapy to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia: “thinking outside the ...


Author: Eileen Dunne Background: Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a precursor to pneumococcal diseases including pneumonia. As part of the Kalgoorlie Otitis Media Research Project, we characterised pneumococci isolated from the nasopharynx of Western Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Methods: Between 1999 and 2005, 100 Aboriginal and 180 non-Aboriginal […]

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes ...



Author: Hajime Takayasu Recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is still difficult to diagnose and repair. In almost all cases, recurrence appears relatively soon after the primary surgery. We herein describe a case of recurrent TEF that appeared 10 years after the primary repair. At 2 years of age, the patient suffered from mental […]

The use of a sternothyroid muscle flap to prevent the ...


Author: Sophie Six Background: Consequences of hyperoxemia, such as acute lung injury, atelectasis, and reduced bacterial clearance, might promote ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between hyperoxemia and VAP. Methods: This retrospective observational study was performed in a 30-bed mixed ICU. All patients […]

Hyperoxemia as a risk factor for ventilator-associated pneumonia



Author: Liping Liu PurposeThe purpose of this study was to better understand the efficacy and safety of carfilzomib, panobinostat, and elotuzumab combinations in patients with refractory/relapsed multiple myeloma(R/RMM). Methods: We retrieved and reviewed published reports including carfilzomib, panobinostat, and elotuzumab combination regimens for patients with R/RMM. Results: We identified 20 […]

Pooled analysis of the reports of carfilzomib, panobinostat, and elotuzumab ...


Author: Paskariatne Yamin Background: Hospital length of stay (LOS) is a key determinant of heart failure hospitalization costs. Longer LOS is associated with lower quality of care measures and higher rates of readmission and mortality. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction predicted poor outcomes in patients with stable chronic heart failure (CHF), […]

Right ventricular dysfunction as predictor of longer hospital stay in ...



Author: Blanca Ferrer Background: Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia: the Home-based Care (HBC) and the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective was to assess the effectiveness of HBC and CHPS on utilization, appropriate […]

Integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services: ...


Author: Matthew Bates Background: Autopsy studies are the gold standard for determining cause-of-death and can inform on improved diagnostic strategies and algorithms to improve patient care. We conducted a cross-sectional observational autopsy study to describe the burden of respiratory tract infections in inpatient children who died at the University Teaching […]

Burden of respiratory tract infections at post mortem in Zambian ...



Author: Albert Palleja Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective means to achieve sustained weight loss for morbidly obese individuals. Besides rapid weight reduction, patients achieve major improvements of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and some of its co-morbidities, like […]

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery of morbidly obese patients induces swift ...


Author: Ping Jin Background: China is one of ten countries with the highest prevalence rate of pneumococcal infections. However, there is limited serotype surveillance data for Streptococcus pneumoniae, especially from the community or rural regions, partly due to limited serotyping capacity because Quellung serotyping is only available in few centers […]

Using a practical molecular capsular serotype prediction strategy to investigate ...



Author: Toshinori Kawanami Background: Determining whether methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a true causative pathogen or reflective of colonization when MRSA is cultured from the respiratory tract remains important in treating patients with pneumonia. Methods: We evaluated the bacterial microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) using the clone library method […]

Clinical impact of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus on bacterial pneumonia: cultivation ...




Author: Lara Coelho Background: Opportunistic illnesses still account for a huge proportion of hospitalizations and deaths among HIV-infected patients in the post combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess predictors of the top four most incident opportunistic illnesses […]

Predictors of opportunistic illnesses incidence in post combination antiretroviral therapy ...


Author: Chinelo Ebruke Background: With the global efforts of reducing pneumococcal disease through widespread introduction of pneumococcal vaccines, concerns have emerged on the potential increase of morbidity and mortality from S. aureus disease. Little is known however, of the carriage rates of S. aureus or of its’ relationship with carriage […]

High genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonising the nasopharynx ...



Author: Vanessa Hollaar Background: In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia. The aim of this survey was […]

Defining characteristics and risk indicators for diagnosing nursing home-acquired pneumonia ...