Alzheimer’s Disease


Author: Young Chul Youn Background: PSEN2 mutations are rare variants, and fewer than 30 different PSEN2 mutations have been found. So far, it has not been reported in Asia.Case presentationPSEN2 mutation at codon 214 for predicting a valine to leucine substitution was found in a 70-year-old woman, who showed a […]

Probable novel PSEN2 Val214Leu mutation in Alzheimer's disease supported by ...


Author: Lokesh Kukreja Background: The role of mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in age-related brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction may cause neurodegeneration in AD is unclear. To model mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo, we utilized mice that harbor a knockin mutation that […]

Increased mtDNA mutations with aging promotes amyloid accumulation and brain ...




Author: Yasuko Kitagishi Traumatic encephalopathy has emerged as a significant public health problem. It is believed that traumatic encephalopathy is caused by exposure to repetitive brain trauma prior to the initial symptoms of neurodegenerative disease. Therefore, prevention is important for the disease. The PI3K/AKT/PTEN (phosphoinositide-3 kinase/AKT/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted […]

Diets involved in PPAR and PI3K/AKT/PTEN pathway may contribute to ...



Author: Reynold Spector We and other investigators have postulated deterioration of essential choroid plexus (CP) functions in some elderly and especially Alzheimer’s disease patients based on apparent anatomical, histological and pathological changes in CP. We have termed this putative phenomenon CP failure. By focusing on four essential energy-requiring CP functions, […]

Sustained choroid plexus function in human elderly and Alzheimer's disease ...


Author: Laura J Blair Tau is a soluble, microtubule-associated protein known to aberrantly form amyloid-positive aggregates. This pathology is characteristic for more than 15 neuropathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer’s disease. Finding therapeutics to reverse or remove this non-native tau state is of great interest; however, at this […]

Potential synergy between tau aggregation inhibitors and tau chaperone modulators



Author: David B Teplow According to Thomas Kuhn, the success of ‘normal science,’ the science we all practice on a daily basis, depends on the adherence to, and practice of, a paradigm accepted by the scientific community. When great scientific upheavals occur, they involve the rejection of the current paradigm […]

On the subject of rigor in the study of amyloid ...


Author: Malcolm A Leissring Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular and intracellular deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ). The study of rare, familial forms of AD has shown that sustained elevations in the production of Aβ (either all forms or specific pathogenic variants thereof) […]

Regulation of distinct pools of amyloid β-protein by multiple cellular ...



Author: Wenxia Li Background: Accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides is an important hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Tremendous efforts have been directed to elucidate the mechanisms of beta-amyloid peptides degradation and develop strategies to remove beta-amyloid accumulation. In this study, we demonstrated that a subpopulation of oligodendroglial precursor cells, also called […]

Autophagy is involved in oligodendroglial precursor-mediated clearance of amyloid peptide


Author: Alex Bahar-Fuchs Cognitive impairments, and particularly memory deficits, are a defining feature of the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Interventions that target these cognitive deficits and the associated difficulties with activities of daily living are the subject of ever-growing interest. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are […]

Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for persons with mild to ...



Author: Raquel C Gardner The population of oldest old, or people aged 85 and older, is growing rapidly. A better understanding of dementia in this population is thus of increasing national and global importance. In this review, we describe the major epidemiological studies, prevalence, clinical presentation, neuropathological and imaging features, […]

Dementia in the oldest old: a multi-factorial and growing public ...




Author: René Spiegel In a symposium held at the Clinical Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease conference in Monte Carlo, Monaco (29 to 31 October 2012) three different, not mutually exclusive approaches to improve and facilitate clinical trials with anti-dementia drugs were presented and discussed. All three approaches are summarized in this […]

Modeling the course of Alzheimer's disease to improve clinical trials: ...


Author: Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common form of dementia accounting for about 50-60% of the overall cases of dementia among persons over 65 years of age. Low acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in hippocampus and cortex areas of the brain is one of the […]

Synthesis, docking and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assessment of 2-(2-(4-Benzylpiperazin-1-yl)ethyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione derivatives with ...



Author: Douglas Galasko These are exciting but challenging times in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. At many levels a more detailed picture of the disease is being refined and advanced, but other aspects of the disease remain highly enigmatic. Furthermore, long-hoped for advances in development of disease modifying therapy remain unfulfilled. […]

Progress in Alzheimer's disease research circa 2013: Is the glass ...


Author: Hervé Maurin Background: GSK3beta is involved in a wide range of physiological functions, and is presumed to act in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, from bipolar disorder to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In contrast, the GSK3alpha isozyme remained largely ignored with respect to both aspects. Results: We generated and characterized […]

Neurological characterization of mice deficient in GSK3alpha highlight pleiotropic physiological ...



Author: Scott J Webster IntroductionDespite the extensive mechanistic and pathological characterization of the APP/PS1 knock-in mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), very little is known about the AD- relevant behavioral deficits in this model. Characterization of the baseline behavioral performance in a variety of functional tasks and identification of the […]

Comprehensive behavioral characterization of an APP/PS-1 double knock-in mouse model ...


Author: Todd E Golde Genetic studies have provided the best evidence for cause and effect relationships in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Indeed, the identification of deterministic mutations in the APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes and subsequent preclinical studies linking these mutations to alterations in Aβ production and aggregation have provided pivotal […]

Alzheimer's disease risk alleles in <it>TREM2 </it>illuminate innate immunity in ...



Author: Suzanne B Hendrix Addressing causes of heterogeneity in cognitive outcomes is becoming more critical as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research focuses on earlier disease. One of the causes of this heterogeneity may be that individuals with deficiencies in different cognitive domains may perform similarly on a neuropsychological (NP) test for […]

Separation of cognitive domains to improve prediction of progression from ...


Author: Jungsu Kim Background: Recent research in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) field has been focused on the potential role of the amyloid-beta protein that is derived from the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP) in directly mediating cognitive impairment in AD. Transgenic mouse models overexpressing APP develop robust AD-like amyloid pathology in […]

Normal cognition in transgenic BRI2-Abeta mice



Author: Marwan N Sabbagh Background: Carriers of the ApoE epsilon4 allele are at a greater risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and those who do develop AD tend to have a much greater neuropathological disease burden. Although several studies have shown significant differences in AD pathology among epsilon4 carriers and […]

The influence of Apolipoprotein E genotype on regional pathology in ...


Author: Sharon C Yates Background: The development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease is hampered by our lack of understanding of the early pathogenic mechanisms and the lack of early biomarkers and risk factors.We have documented the expression pattern of mTOR regulated genes in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer’s disease […]

Dysfunction of the mTOR pathway is a risk factor for ...



Author: Ning Bai Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of NMDARs is implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Native NMDARs are heteromultimeric protein complexes consisting of NR1 and NR2 subunits. NR2 subunits (NR2A–D) are the major determinants of the functional properties of NMDARs. Most research […]

Dock3 interaction with a glutamate-receptor NR2D subunit protects neurons from ...


Author: Bruce L Miller The clinical, neuropsychiatric and neuroimaging features of patients who carry the important new C9ORF72 mutation are discussed in this special series of Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy. First reported in November 2011, the C9ORF72 mutation is the most common mutation associated with both frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic […]

The <it>C9ORF72 </it>mutation brings more answers and more questions