Autism



Author: Li-Feng Jiang-Xie Background: As elegant structures designed for neural communication, synapses are the building bricks of our mental functions. Recently, many studies have pointed out that synaptic protein-associated mutations may lead to dysfunctions of social cognition. Dlgap2, which encodes one of the main components of scaffold proteins in postsynaptic […]

Autism-associated gene Dlgap2 mutant mice demonstrate exacerbated aggressive behaviors and ...



Author: Christina R Maxwell Background: Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly […]

The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum ...


Author: Michael Berk Background: We now know that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system. It is similarly accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), which contribute to neuroprogression in the disorder. […]

So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the ...



Author: Charles B Nemeroff The recent release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association has led to much debate. For this forum article, we asked BMC Medicine Editorial Board members who are experts in the field of psychiatry […]

DSM-5: a collection of psychiatrist views on the changes, controversies, ...




Author: S Hossein Fatemi Background: Candidate genes associated with idiopathic forms of autism overlap with other disorders including fragile X syndrome. Our laboratory has previously shown reduction in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex (BA9) […]

Impairment of fragile X mental retardation protein-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 ...




Author: Edgar Bittner Silva Background: Autism is a disorder characterized by pervasive social and communicative impairments, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Its causes and effects have been researched from various neurocognitive theoretical perspectives and with the aid of neuroimaging technology. We aimed to describe biopsychosocial processes characteristic of […]

The biopsychosocial processes in autism spectrum disorder


Author: Emily R Owen Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and non-idiopathic autism. Individuals with FXS present with a behavioral phenotype of specific and selective deficits in an array of cognitive skills. Disruption of number processing and arithmetic abilities in higher-functioning adults […]

Using infrared eye-tracking to explore ordinal numerical processing in toddlers ...



Author: Ana Catarino Background: Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are a set of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by a wide range of lifelong signs and symptoms. Recent explanatory models of autism propose abnormal neural connectivity and are supported by studies showing decreased interhemispheric coherence in individuals with ASC. The first aim […]

Task-related functional connectivity in autism spectrum conditions: an EEG study ...


Author: Christine M Freitag Background: Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this […]

The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents ...



Author: Ake Tzu-Hui Lu Background: Alternation of synaptic homeostasis is a biological process whose disruption might predispose children to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Calcium channel genes (CCG) contribute to modulating neuronal function and evidence implicating CCG in ASD has been accumulating. We conducted a targeted association analysis of CCG using […]

Support for calcium channel gene defects in autism spectrum disorders