Childhood Disorders


Author: Tran Ngoc Dang Background: Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), a severe life-threatening form of dengue infection, mostly occurs in children. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) identified two SNPs, rs3132468 of major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) and rs3765524 of phospholipase C, epsilon 1 (PLCE1), associated […]

A replication study confirms the association of GWAS-identified SNPs at ...




Author: Tim A Kanters Background: Infantile Pompe disease is a rare metabolic disease. Patients generally do not survive the first year of life. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has proven to have substantial effects on survival in infantile Pompe disease. However, the costs of therapy are very high. In this paper, […]

Cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in classic-infantile ...


Author: Gaute Reier Jenssen Background: Public awareness of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), especially related to Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), has increased in Europe in recent years; accentuated in Norway by a national outbreak in 2006 and in a European context especially by the 2011 outbreak originating in Germany. As […]

Incidence and etiology of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children in Norway, ...



Author: Renata Bortolus Background: In 2010 a Cochrane review confirmed that folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents the first- and second-time occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). At present some evidence from observational studies supports the hypothesis that FA supplementation can reduce the risk of all congenital malformations (CMs) or the […]

Prevention of congenital malformations and other adverse pregnancy outcomes with ...


Author: Christy L Collins Background: Data limited to emergency department and inpatient visits undoubtedly underestimate the medical charges associated with traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct medical charges of pediatric traumatic brain injuries across all clinical settings in one large, pediatric hospital in […]

Direct medical charges of pediatric traumatic brain injury in multiple ...



Author: Nancy A Neilan Background: An altered intestinal mucosal barrier has been demonstrated in subsets of patients with IBS and FAP and may be an additional biological factor contributing to symptom generation in children with FD. The objective of this study was to determine if intestinal permeability is increased in […]

Intestinal permeability in children/adolescents with functional dyspepsia


Author: Julian G Simmons Background: Puberty is a critical developmental phase in physical, reproductive and socio-emotional maturation that is associated with the period of peak onset for psychopathology. Puberty also drives significant changes in brain development and function. Research to date has focused on gonadarche, driven by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, […]

Study protocol: imaging brain development in the childhood to adolescence ...



Author: Sebastian Fröhler Background: Long-QT syndrome (LQTS) causes a prolongation of the QT-interval in the ECG leading to life threatening tachyarrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation. One atypical form of LQTS, Timothy syndrome (TS), is associated with syndactyly, immune deficiency, cognitive and neurological abnormalities as well as distinct cranio-facial abnormalities.Case presentationOn a […]

Exome sequencing helped the fine diagnosis of two siblings afflicted ...


Author: Laura Lucaccioni Background: Central precocious puberty (CPP) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are two rare conditions, the latter being the rarer. To date, only one case featuring both these conditions has been reported, and hyperphenylalaninemia was assumed triggering CPP.Case presentationWe present a 3.2 years old girl referred with a 12 months […]

Central precocious puberty in a 3 year-old girl with Phenylketonuria: ...



Author: Monica Lakhanpaul Background: South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions, more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and […]

A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators ...


Author: Adewale L Oyeyemi Background: Understanding environmental factors related to adolescents’ physical activity can inform intervention for obesity control and prevention, but virtually no study has been conducted in the African region, where adolescents’ physical inactivity and chronic diseases rates are rising. This study assessed associations between perceived built environmental […]

Perception of built environmental factors and physical activity among adolescents ...



Author: Claudia Santoro Background: Diagnosis within RASopathies still represents a challenge. Nevertheless, many efforts have been made by clinicians to identify specific clinical features which might help in differentiating one disorder from another. Here, we describe a child initially diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. The follow-up of the proband, the clinical […]

LEOPARD syndrome: clinical dilemmas in differential diagnosis of RASopathies


Author: Carolin Donath Background: Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is […]

Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a ...



Author: Angelika Michel Background: Helicobacter pylori infection that is usually acquired in childhood and lasts for lifetime is mostly asymptomatic but associated with severe gastrointestinal disease including cancer. During chronic infection, the gastric mucosa is histologically changing. This forces H. pylori to permanent adaptation in its gastric habitat by expression […]

Helicobacter pylori antibody patterns in Germany: a cross-sectional population study


Author: Thomas Brick Severe anemia contributes significantly to child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Blood transfusion is used in emergencies but carries risks. In BMC Medicine, Olupot-Olupot and colleagues report the findings of a phase II trial in children with severe anemia in Eastern Uganda. They provide important early safety and […]

Risks and benefits of transfusion for children with severe anemia ...



Author: Peter Olupot-Olupot Background: Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood […]

Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in ...


Author: Julie A Wright Background: Reliable, valid and theoretically consistent measures that assess a parent’s self-efficacy for helping a child with obesity prevention behaviors are lacking.Objectives: To develop measures of parental self-efficacy for four behaviors: 1) helping their child get at least 60 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity every […]

Assessing parental self-efficacy for obesity prevention related behaviors



Author: Louise Schilder IntroductionNeutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) and levels reflect severity of disease in critically ill patients. However, continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) may affect plasma levels by clearance or release of NGAL by activated neutrophils in the filter, dependent on the anticoagulation […]

The plasma level and biomarker value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin ...


Author: Carolyne Ndila Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is associated with high early mortality. In the absence of newborn screening, most deaths among children with SCD go unrecognized and unrecorded. As a result, SCD does not receive the attention […]

Verbal autopsy as a tool for identifying children dying of ...



Author: Justin M Guagliano Background: Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels. Participants, however, spend a considerable proportion of time during OYS inactive. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate whether coaches who attended […]

Increasing girls' physical activity during an organised youth sport basketball ...


Author: Miao Song Background: Rabies reemerged in China during the 1990s with a gradual increase in the number and geographical dispersion of cases. As a consequence, a national surveillance program was introduced in 2005 to investigate the outbreak in terms of vaccination coverage, PEP treatment, and geographical and social composition. […]

Human rabies surveillance and control in China, 2005-2012



Author: Monalisa Cesarino Gomes Background: Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim […]

Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life ...


Author: Peter T Katzmarzyk Background: The primary aim of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) was to determine the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and obesity in a multi-national study of children, and to investigate the influence of higher-order characteristics such as behavioural settings, and the […]

The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment ...