Multiple Sclerosis


Author: Gerwyn Morris Background: ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS.DiscussionThere are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune […]

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable ...


Author: Petra D Cravens Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be a CD4+ T cell mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is rarely diagnosed during infancy. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that confer disease resistance in this age group are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that […]

The neonatal CNS is not conducive for encephalitogenic Th1 T ...



Author: Maja Kitic Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, disabling disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the formation of astrocyte-destructive, neutrophil-dominated inflammatory lesions in the spinal cord and optic nerves. These lesions are initiated by the binding of pathogenic aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibodies to astrocytes and […]

Intrastriatal injection of interleukin-1 beta triggers the formation of neuromyelitis ...


Author: Mélanie Morin-Brureau Background: It is now recognized that the neuro-vascular unit (NVU) plays a key role in several neurological diseases including epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and the development of gliomas. Most of these disorders are associated with NVU dysfunction, due to overexpression of inflammatory factors such as […]

Organotypic brain slices: a model to study the neurovascular unit ...



Author: Hiromi Kikuchi Background: To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and […]

Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life ...


Author: Bijay Parajuli Background: Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) […]

GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of ...