Pneumonia


Author: Marina Koupetori Background: Choice of empirically prescribed antimicrobials for sepsis management depends on epidemiological factors. The epidemiology of sepsis in Greece was studied in two large-periods. Methods: Sepsis due to bloodstream infections (BSI) from July 2006 until March 2013 was recorded in a multicenter study in 46 departments. Patients […]

Bloodstream infections and sepsis in Greece: over-time change of epidemiology ...


Author: Ji Young Park Background: Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is characterized by chronic eosinophilic infiltration of the lung. It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid treatment, but symptoms and radiopacities recur frequently after tapering or discontinuing the medication. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway […]

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: ...



Author: Kai P Leung Background: Bacterial infections of wounds impair healing and worsen scarring. We hypothesized that transcriptome analysis of wounds infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) would indicate host-responses associated with the worse healing of P.a.- than K.p.-infected wounds. Methods: Wounds created on post-operative day (POD) […]

Dermal wound transcriptomic responses to Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus ...


Author: Harutaka Katano Background: Opportunistic infections and malignancies such as malignant lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma are significant complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Japan in 1997, the incidence of clinical complications has decreased. In the present study, autopsy cases of HIV […]

The prevalence of opportunistic infections and malignancies in autopsied patients ...



Author: Thorsten Steinmann Background: European and national administrative legislation require objective evaluation systems for organ lesions at pig slaughter. These results can be used as basis for herd health improvement programs by farmers and their consulting veterinarians. Various studies have shown that the current evaluation and recording of lesions by […]

A simplified evaluation system of surface-related lung lesions of pigs ...


Author: Lieuwe DJ Bos Background: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common, devastating complication of critical illness that is characterized by pulmonary injury and inflammation. The clinical diagnosis may be improved by means of objective biological markers. Electronic nose (eNose) technology can rapidly and non-invasively provide breath prints, […]

Exhaled breath profiling for diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome



Author: Susanna Ricci Background: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a life-threatening disease with a high case-fatality rate and elevated risk for serious neurological sequelae. In this study, we investigated the contribution of three major virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the capsule, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and C (PspC), to the […]

Contribution of different pneumococcal virulence factors to experimental meningitis in ...


Author: Chin-Nan Chu Background: This study investigated the incidence and patient- and treatment-related risk factors related to pneumonia acquired during radiotherapy (PNRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods: Using the universal insurance claims data, 15,894 total HNC patients between 1998 and 2007 were included in this analysis. PNRT […]

Incidence of pneumonia and risk factors among patients with head ...



Author: Naoko Kinoshita-Katahashi Background: Hyponatremia is often observed in patients with Legionella pneumonia. However, other electrolyte abnormalities are uncommon and the mechanism remains to be clarified.Case presentationWe experienced two male cases of acquired Fanconi syndrome associated with Legionella pneumonia. The laboratory findings at admission showed hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypouricemia and/or hyponatremia. […]

Acquired Fanconi Syndrome in Patients with Legionella Pneumonia


Author: Sheila Z Kimaro Mlacha Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the availability of effective pneumococcal vaccines. Understanding the molecular interactions between the bacterium and the host will contribute to the control and prevention of pneumococcal disease. Results: We used a combination […]

Phenotypic, genomic, and transcriptional characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae interacting with ...



Author: Zhengrong Chen Background: The incidence of severe acute respiratory tract infections in children caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (syn. Schizoplasma pneumoniae) and Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae) varies greatly from year to year and place to place around the world. This study investigated the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae and C. […]

Epidemiology and associations with climatic conditions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ...


Author: Da-kang Hu Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is the major cause of childhood mortality worldwide, we need to understand virulence genes of SP so can better target the treatment.We investigated the expression of virulence genes PsaA and CpsA in different strains of SP interacting with monocyte cell line (THP-1) or […]

Roles of virulence genes (PsaA and CpsA) on the invasion ...



Author: Antonio M Esquinas Rodriguez Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could […]

Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill ...


Author: Karim Asehnoune Protease-activated receptors (PARs) belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Among the four members, PAR1 plays a major role in orchestrating the interactions between coagulation and inflammation. PAR1 has opposing functions during sepsis, and PAR1 blockade or activation may be alternatively beneficial at early or late […]

Protease-activated receptor-1: key player in the sepsis coagulation-inflammation crosstalk



Author: Guillaume Lacroix IntroductionHealth care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has been proposed as a new category of respiratory infection to identify patients at risk of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The American Thoracic Society’s recommendation for HCAP treatment is to use broad-spectrum and multiple antibiotics. However, this strategy may be economically expensive and promote […]

Evaluation of early mini- bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of ...


Author: Josephine M Nantongo Background: A high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in children presenting with severe pneumonia has previously been reported in South Africa. However, little is known about TB among children with pneumonia in Uganda and other resource limited countries. Moreover, TB is associated with high morbidity and mortality […]

High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe ...



Author: Ignacio Martin-Loeches The optimal length of antimicrobial therapy has not been extensively studied for a great majority of infections and, in critically ill patients affected by ventilator-associated pneumonia, is a persisting and unsolved issue confronting clinicians. The integration of biomarkers, clinical judgment, and microbiologic eradication might help to define […]

A week seems to be weak: tailoring duration of antibiotic ...


Author: Rodolfo Ocadiz-Delgado Background: In April 2009, public health surveillance detected an increased number of influenza-like illnesses in Mexico City’s hospitals. The etiological agent was subsequently determined to be a spread of a worldwide novel influenza A (H1N1) triple reassortant. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate that […]

In situ molecular identification of the Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ...



Author: Matt P Wise Improving the quality of oral hygiene is recognised as an important counter measure for reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia amongst critically ill patients. Toothbrushing physically disrupts the dental plaque that acts as a reservoir for pulmonary infection and therefore has the potential to reduce the […]

Oral care and pulmonary infection – the importance of plaque ...


Author: Petra Svozílková Purpose: To present a possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in a patient with systemic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.Case presentationA 47-year-old woman presented with decreased visual acuity associated with white retinal lesions in both eyes. A history of pneumonia of unknown aetiology closely preceded the deterioration of […]

A possible coincidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and intraocular lymphoma in ...



Author: Farhan Essa Abdullah Background: The objective of the research was to evaluate the current effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin on the uropathogens prevalent in infected urines of a cross-section of patients in Karachi, Pakistan.FindingsAn observational study conducted in a private diagnostic laboratory and its branches in key areas of Karachi City […]

Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance of isolates from infected urines of a ...